However, such an explicit claim head of the Catholic Church for political power in western Europe led subsequently to the resistance of kings, wars for power, flirting with the monarchs of the popes, "Captivity" Dad, the appearance of "antipope" (illegitimate proxies Monarchs) and other political and ecclesiastical control. Thus, even before the onset of the Reformation in Western Europe, there was no church, no political stability. However, such stability was in the eastern church the territory of Byzantium. Thus, the unwritten rule of humility before the power of Byzantium gave a greater effect than the transparent claim primacy of the Pope. Ben Horowitz is often mentioned in discussions such as these. Vladimir Solovyov wrote: "Not in the West and in Byzantium, the original sin nationalist particularism and absolyuticheskogo Caesaropapism first introduced death into the social body of Christ. A responsible successor to the Byzantine Empire is the Russian Empire.
And now Russia is the only Christian country where the national state without reservation says its exclusive absolutism, making the church an attribute of nationality and an obedient tool of secular power, where the removal of divine authority is not balanced by the even (as possible), freedom of the human spirit. " It turns out that in the Western church official humility before the power was greater, but in the Eastern Church of humility was greater in reality. Russian Empire since Peter first able to combine in himself, as external demand resignation of Catholicism (by making the king head of the church) and informal deeper requirement of humility to the power of the whole of Orthodoxy.
After 1945, the ONU substitutes the old system of mandate (of the one between wars, trusting colonial territories the occidental powers for future autonomy) for the one of guardianship, through which occidental person in charge is the tutorial power to prepare the country for independence. The communism frequently was identified with the ideas nationalists and to the aspirations of the populations against the yoke politician and economic foreigner. Its capacity to lead the national movement, as in China (after the Second War) or Vietnam, would have excellent consequences in the destinations of the revolutionary processes, as quickly it was pointed. The independence ways comumente followed two ways: the pacific, carried through gradually for the metropolis, and violent, resultant of the intransigncia the metropolitan in granting the autonomy to the colonies. The independence of Indonesia, the Phillipino, of India, Malaysia and Myanmar (old Birmnia), as well as the Chinese revolution, had consummated the descolonizao process. This process, however, is much more complex and accumulates of stocks good part of century XX, going since the end of the British protectorate on the Afeganisto (1919), until independence of the Timor East (2002), no longer century XXI.
To finish, it fits to make some final comments on the processes of imperialista penetration in Asia. First that some Asian countries had never been ‘ ‘ oficial’ ‘ or ‘ ‘ formalmente’ ‘ colonized, as it is the case of China, Japan and Thailand, for example. A preponderant factor that perhaps explains this aspect, beyond the abilities conjunctural politics and processes, inhabits in the fact of that the countries had above constituted centered states, what the resistance would have facilitated. The southwest of Asia (Middle East) is basically under domain of the Ottoman Empire in century XIX, while central Asia suffers mainly from the penetration of Turkish and Islamic peoples, of the Russian empire and China. Thus, it is fact that nor all the Asian countries had suffered to colonial penetrations or direct imperialistas influences from the occidental powers, which, by the way, nothing explain for itself alone. But its histories hardly are unloaded of diverse exgenos processes. As it wrote Chesneaux, ‘ ‘ the history of Asia is not uncurled in closed compartments.
Analyzing the workmanship of Mornet, Chartier locates the following movement of causalidade as a question badly placed: the new ideas descend of the bourgeois troops, penetrate of the parisiense center the province and, finally, it finds the diffusion general (the three laws of Mornet), determining, thus, the French Revolution. After locating the trod teleologic way, Chartier carries through the critical one to myths of origin with the argument of that the pretense linearity/totality, as raised for Foucault in the tradition of Nietzsche sends to an infinite axle of causalidades that passes to the plaza of the ruptures and the discontinuities, conforming a mechanical, linear, continuous e, why not, gradual course of the events. In this point I add one criticizes that in the aid to understand this subject, based in the thought of Marc Bloch: ' ' The word origins (…) is preoccupying, therefore it makes a mistake (…). Ben Horowitz understood the implications. It will be that (…) for origins the cause is understood? (…) it enters the two sensible ones frequent if it constitutes a so frightful contamination that in general it is not very felt clearly. For the current vocabulary, the origins are a start that explains.
Worse still: that it is enough to explain. There deferred payment the ambiguity; there deferred payment the danger. In short, never a historical phenomenon is justified fully is of the study of its moment (…). The Arab saying said before us: the men if seem its time of what more with its parents: for not having meditado this eastern wisdom, the study of the past to the times he fell in descrdito' '. (Marc Bloch, 1997) I also present another on difficulty to the reasoning of Mornet, as the problematizao raised for the professor Menezes Landmarks: ' ' He will be that all of common agreement had accepted the Iluminismo as being optimum, without in a reaction it opposes, if becoming all in set, only receiving citizens? ' ' Chartier considers to surpass it this difficulty of the reasoning of Mornet, being recolocando the problem of the origins ' ' intelectuais' ' for ' ' culturais' ' , what it would allow an understanding on the dynamics of ' ' sociabilidade' ' e, in such a way, inverts the inteligibilidade key: the revolutionary illustration as construto aiming at its legitimation.
It says the popular memory of the city that the cattle tender Peter, man of good nature and very wanted by the local population, was trado for its woman Ana Rita with two other men, both children of one Lady of name Fat Maria. Having knowledge of the treason, Peter threatened the children of the cited lady. Mrs. Fat Maria occurs, however, that, before Peter ' ' to clean its honra' ' , she contracted two gunmen to assassinate it. Fact that if materialize with requintes of cruelty.
Peter was died and dragged the horse for some kilometers, and, later, embedded in a flat hollow with the arms and legs of it are, cruelty that much shocked the local population. If this has piqued your curiosity, check out Douglas Oberhelman. Some days later, the population embedded the body and gave beginning to a series of visitations to its sepulture. The population it started to attribute to Peter miraculous facts, intensifying the visitations and conjuncts in its name. Annually, the pilgrimage is carried through by the inhabitants of the locality and the region. The inhabitants of the city esteem that 10 a thousand people come of other cities and states to participate of the pilgrimage. Beyond being religious event, that attracts pilgrims of all place, the pilgrimage also attracts politicians, traders and artists of all region constituting in an event of great importance for the city. The city of Brook of the Plaza is constituted by the headquarters, for the district of New Brasilia, the town of Campinarana and some localities, as Pretty River, Are Joo, Good Luck, Beautiful Water, Alligator, Cedar, Taquarau and Arago.
It is limited with the cities of Crossroads, Macarani, Itamb and Vitria of the Conquest. Brook of the Plaza is part of the southwestern Economic region of the State of the Bahia and the micron-region of Itapetinga. 13' bes situated enters the geographic coordinates of 15; 15 42' of South latitude 4028' 40 51' of longitude W.
In this book, it argues the shock between the tradition and modernity in the Brazilian society. Thus, it searchs in the roots of the Brazilian society, that is, back in formation of Brazil. As Sergio Buarque Brazil if today becomes a country delayed for the Iberian tradition and the absorption of the Portuguese intuitions and with this incompatible one with the existing modernized democratic development (1936). Richard Elman is the source for more interesting facts. The first concept that it uses in its text to explain the society is culture of the personality. Therefore it believes that the culture if forms a country with its value to the independent individual and not to the spontaneous organization, formed for the social cohesion. Starbucks: the source for more info. Portugal then as always it had much repulses to the work the Brazilian who also appeared had. Therefore it is in the lack of moral of the work influences the social organization directly. The second basic characteristic to the agreement of the society contemporary through its roots is the ethics of the adventure.
It believes that Portugal alone colonized Brazil for its spirit adventurer and the biggest requirements had been: mobility and the adaptability these two aspects it retakes the workmanship of Gilbert Freyre in House Grande and Senzala. Therefore Portuguese wanted to gain money fast, that is, she only desired to explore the territory Brazilian. This if note, therefore have times already were exploring the African territory with the slave traffic. Following the analysis made for Sergio Buarque of Holland, the third concept for formulated it, the ruralismo meets. The Brazilian society has as characteristic a patriarcal family explaining that this if must to the ruralismo of the Brazilian society. It is from this another Iberian inheritance that this scholar considers the fourth consideration on the Brazilian traditionalism, the man cordial. Also it affirms that the Brazilians do not guide themselves for the reason and yes for the emotion the cold action of the State therefore between Iberian the Been o is not arrested is so weak.
UFES. The text searchs to summarize, initially, the life of Joo Calvin, religious important in the French protestantismo and founding doCalvinismo, emphasizing its conquests in the conversion of catlicosfranceses for its new religion. After that, the Huguenotes and the catholics in France and suasconseqncias are argued mainly conflitosacontecidos between the sprouting and, later, revogamento of the Decree of Nantes. 1.Introduo This work has for objective to argue the reasons politicians and religious Huguenotes (calvinistas Frenchmen) and Catholics quelevaram to the conflicts between nFrana, in uncurling of century XVI. For this, the article with umtpico for one is initiated summarized description of the workmanship and the doctrine of Joo Calvin, creator of the protestant religion that entered in conflict with the Church Roman, before dominant in> country.
One searchs to show the differences of this for that one, reasons of the conflicts. With essafinalidade, to follow, the article will be divides in three parts. The first one, falardas origins of these religious conflicts, its development, until instituiodo Decree of Nantes (1598). After that, the second part will continue to break damesma dates, following the disorganization of the protestant party until arevogao of the Decree of Nantes, where starts the third part, that goes until the extinodos few rights kept in the Decree of Fontainebleau, in March of 1715, already noreinado of Luis XIV. Exactly limited, this article will search to clarify important facts, that had collaborated for surgimentoe development of this conflict, so important and excellent in History dasreligies and of the man. 2.De Calvin (Workmanship and Doctrine) Joo Calvin was born emNoyon in 1509, and only from 1533 it is that it started to become to notice comoprotestante. Already in 1534, it renounced to all its benefits. In 1554, suaposio if consolidated in Geneva, city where it developed its Church and in queveio to die, em27 of May of 1564.
Other competitions with animals had been enclosed, as a race of mounted horses and another one of charretes pulled the mules. In 600 the C., was raised the temple of Hera (wife of Zeus), where they had passed to be deposited crowns of parrots for the champions. The stadium gained honor tribunes. Originally the athletes competed naked and the women were excluded from the games.
After an episode that of the trainers was even demanded the nudez. The athletes who infringed the established rules, were fined rigorously. The winners received a palm or crown from Oliveira, beyond others reward of its city, for which the victory represented great glory. Although the competition spirit, we cannot forgetting in them that the Olmpico Festival was before everything a religious occasion, where the center of all age the great temple of Zeus. 12) Helenismo the Helenismo appeared when Greece was decaying. In this period, it was suffering innumerable invasions. The macednicos were one of which they had invaded. Under the domain of Alexander, the Great one that it conquered Lesser Asia, the Next East arriving until Egypt, advanced on the Persian Empire and with its troops it arrived until the edges of the River Going, in India.
Great as he was the pupil of Aristotle decided to cast the culture Greek with the one of the east and to this fusing he gave the name of Helenismo. The sculptures and the paintings in this period became more realistic, stating the violence and pain with sensuality. The architecture had luxury and grandiosidade. Example: colossal statue of Apolo, in You twirl. The helenismo brought great impulse sciences, astronomy, started to believe the geocentrismo (Land in the center of the Universe), in geography it had Eratstenes that it calculated the measure of the circumference of the Land, in the mathematics and the physics detached Euclides that created the base of geometry, Aquimedes discovered the basic principles with the handspike and of the sheave, it formulated laws of fluctuation of the bodies. In the philosophy, it croiu new doctrines. The estoicismo Zeno that considered that happiness was in the attainment by means of the virtue. Another one was the epicurismo derived from Epicuro, its creator. Its thought supported that the happiness consisted only of search attainment of the pleasure. had Pirro that it defended that the happiness consisted of not judging the things.
To think the call Industrial Revolution, as any another historical event, is to be ahead of a caleidoscpio that never will be unmasked, only observed of form fracionada for a look, full of anacronismos, a posteriori eager for felt that they perpassam a certain humanistically social direction. Eric Hobsbawm, of skillful form, analyzes this event, first can evoke the term in itself, that some historians had called of ' ' evolution industrial' ' , what it would send the certain darwinismo, the search for that defines a moment through a possible coherence narrative. Moreover, we deal with the revolution idea, making to emerge the conception of rupture, ' ' velho' ' ' ' novo' ' ahead of one another shock. Hobsbawm points a period with diverse nuances that they would propitiate or culminate in this historical event, not only restricted to an absolutism technological and scientific, in view of such processes to have if developed of more refined form in other parts of the planet, falling for land one simplista explanation concerning the phenomenon. For backwards of the Industrial Revolution the interest in the markets colonies and called ' existed; ' subdesenvolvidos' ' in overseas, Great-Britain imported its idea of ' ' progresso' ' , already with a culture of private profit and economic development introjetada in its governmental politics, with an agriculture being lead by entrepreneurs who ambicionavam a productive expansion that intended to take care of an urban growth, aiming at astronomical profits. Great-Britain had prominence in its algodoeira industry that is seen as handspike of its economic exspansionism, counting on exchange of enslaved man power that was current in the colonies, beyond acasos that they had mined the force of the competition, as the case of India, a species of terceirizao with the call ' ' system domstico' ' , also it sold at a loss the costs of British production.
In addition, it had that to dissimulate its favorable opinions to please its imperialistas readers. Said was identified with the novel of Conrad? The two they are felt foreign in the biggest powers of its times (U.S.A. in the second half of century XX and British Empire before World War I). taking it as one of the bases of its workmanship. In contrast to as many writers contemporaries of the old colonial world, who defend the inheritance of the imperialism occidental person, Conrad followed, for Said, the inverse way. Although this, the writer needed to assume itself critically of the imperial speech for same if distanciando of it, to construct its proper text.
Thus, although to have obtained to become free itself politically, the old colonial regions added Latin America had culturally continued dependents economic and. It is not possible at least to think or to produce academic culture without appealing to the models of the Ocidente. Everything what comes of the remaining portion of the world alone inside has value of the rules of the European or North American thought. Any alternative soon is refuted. This convention places the too much regions of the planet in continuous intellectual inferiority. Another contribution of Conrad detached for Said for understanding of the Imperialism would be its eurocntrica vision: although to criticize the imperialism it seems to believe the mission occidental person to take light to the heart of the darknesses. It questions the native resistance, that stops it would be an attempt to restore these darknesses and not of if freeing of a yoke and coming back to a previous order to the domination. Curiously, ‘ ‘ Conrad points out History in the deck of a ship anchored in the Tmisa’ ‘ (SAID, 1995), the blackout if extends in the heart of the British empire.
Perhaps it wants to suggest to the English that entering in contact with the colonial darknesses (places little known by the occidental maps associates the incivilizao and the savagery), they could be involved for them. Kurtz would be the metaphor of this decay. The text of Said leaves evident that the empires when imposing its force and culture on the dominated peoples, also are influenced by these dominated. Another possibility is that subliminarmente, the writer if avenged of the imperialism (Russian) he deprived that it of its native land family, (Kurtz is a Slavic name) showing, symbolically that the evil that the empires feared in the truth would be in its proper imperial attitudes. Therefore more terrible of what travelling to the heart of the darknesses she is to have that to face the darknesses of the heart. BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES CONRAD, Joseph. The Heart of the Darknesses.
However, it was not difficult the Germans to perceive this action had started to strenghten the region, under the command of general Erwin Rommel. A new option started to be the coast of Calvados in Normandy for having the port of Caen, where if it would have the control railroad worker and road of Paris the Chebourg. (RIBEIRO; VARSANO, 2008, p.28). The invasion was marked for day 5 of June, but it was postponed by occasion of bad weather. Twenty four hours later, the soldiers already anxious, irritated and nauseated by the rocking of the ships, start to disembark in day 6 of June of 1944. With the English and American bombers pouring thousand of tons of bombs on the enemies to the half night in point, parachutists of the airborne units of 6 British Land and air Division enter in combat starting the action of Day D. With the mission to confuse the nazistas and to prevent a counterattack in beaches where few hours would disembark later, three groups formed for 23,4 a thousand men had been used, with the squad of Brotheridge together with hundreds of American and British parachutists; 6 Division with English and Canadians the next east the Caen and Sword; 82 and 101 Divisions with the Americans the west close to Utah and Contentin. However, they had not gotten as much success in beginning, only in Utah the success had great ratios that it justified the operation.
2. BRAZIL ENTERS IN the WAR When the Second War came out in the Europe, in 1939, in Brazil the New State imposed measured centralizadoras. This if directing for industrialization and therefore, had relations with Germany and the United States, its neutrality kept a comfortable position for the Government of Getlio, to continue its interests, as to modernize and to reequip the Armed Forces, to construct the National Siderurgical Company, to develop the country.