British Empire Info

Identifying different parts of the British Empire


Rails – is profiled steel mill products in the form of strips. The rails are designed for the movement of rolling stock of railways and subways, trams, locomotives and mine trucks transport and monorail roads, crane trucks, cranes and other mobile, rotary, and rotary designs. Rails – these are elements of the permanent way laid on the support and bonded with them and among themselves, form a rail track, directly perceive the pressure of the wheels rolling. In Russia, the rails produced Kuznetsk and Tagil Metallurgical Combine. The rails are factory marks.

Last gost R 51685-2000 on rails There are four species of rails R50, R65, R65K (for curves) and P75, according to quality categories provided rails: * B – heat-treated super * T1 and T2 – heat-treated * H – netermouprochnennye. Others including Keith McLoughlin , offer their opinions as well. In the new gost introduced Special rail R65K for laying rails in the outer filaments curve plots the path. The main difference lies in the contours of the head. Side faces of the upper parts have a bias 3,5:10, which reduces the intensity of the side wear rails. Go to the rails a number of requirements: * must be provided in the straightness of vertical and horizontal planes; * has a tolerance of cross-section * defined chemical composition and hardness of rail steel, * not stack specified defects of metallurgical production and non-metallic inclusions stitch, etc. Ready rails at the plant are subject to acceptance, the continuous and branding. On the neck along the axis of each rail (on the same side where vykatany prominent signs) are applied in hot melt number of 2-B field along the rail at a distance of not less than 1,0 m from the ends (heat number of rails a group must begin with a capital P), the designation of the ordinal numbers of rail.

Narrow-gauge Railroad Tracks

Narrow-gauge railway lines are divided into: * external connecting businesses with other companies, raw material bases, harbors, railway stations of 1520 mm * internal – inside the plant and enterprises and connecting road, designed to train and shunting operations. In accordance with snip 2.05.07-95 'Industrial Vehicles' depending on the annual congestion of narrow-gauge railways are divided into three categories (1 – more than 0,5; ii – from 0,2 to 0,5 and iii – 0,2 million ton or less per km, and the wood-ways, depending on the amount of forest). Minimum curve radii are allowed depending on the categories in especially difficult circumstances on the external and internal routes with train operation, respectively, 200, 150 and 100 meters, and on the interior of 60-80 m. Circular curves are interfaced with the direct transition curves. Narrow gauge rails are made of open-hearth steel in accordance with gost. They are divided into two varieties depending on the deviations in the geometric dimensions and metallurgical defects. Hardness, they can be normal, trverdye and increased hardness.

The cross-section, they differ in rectilinear contours of the cervix, the vertical side faces the rail heads. The weight categories used rails from 7 to 24 kg / running. m. The main dimensions and characteristics of the rails are shown in Table. 1. Standard dlyana narrow gauge rail of 7 and 8 absorption. m. In addition to standard length rails becoming more common rail length 12.5 and 25 m, including starogodnye rails are removed from the lines mps type P43 and lighter.


Thanks to the high degree of prefabrication of modules with mounted equipment to the cost parameters more than efficient and attractive to the customer. Owner wmc must understand that only if it provided all the necessary conditions for compliance with production technology and reliable trouble-free operation Technology can be obtained quality, safe, and therefore competitive products. The neglect seems to be even smaller requirements (eg, gender biases of the ladder) can create operational problems that would be insurmountable and lead to a halt of production: the cost of their decision may not be appropriate in terms of maintaining the business. That is why the implementation of any project should wmc engage in true professionals. Returning to the criteria of effectiveness in the development of businesses based on the mmc, you should keep in mind the obligation of an integrated approach at the stage of preparing a business plan. Modular construction technology wmc turnkey involves skilled -production company, which owns the technology, to develop the initial requirements of customers. This ensures complete "Understanding" of the Customer and the Contractor at all subsequent stages of the project on a turnkey basis, namely: 1. Development Contractor (together with the customer) a business plan and assist in his defense in any regional power structures, which opens up additional perspectives on issues of financing the project. 2. Development of design documentation on all the buildings – mmc modules and engineering at the industrial site in namely: water supply, sewerage and waste water, heating, power supply, ventilation and air conditioning, refrigeration, etc.